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This review paper highlight horizontal inequity in health based on belonging to ethnic minority and discuss  mechanisms that cause and maintain health inequity in Vietnam. The review points out the major area of inequality that exist in terms of health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene and report that reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups.