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This paper explains the sociopolitical and historical dimensions of the polio disparity between Muslims and Hindus in India. Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu Nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination.