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This scoping review focus on the  concept of vulnerability in connection with health care disparities and analyse the relationship between health care disparities and the multiplicity of risk factors that are often clustered together and acting synergistically in the same individual. The review conclude that high levels of vulnerability (due to the co-existence of multiple vulnerability aspects) would increase health care needs and would be associated to lower health care accessibility and quality. The review further points out that there is paucity of research focusing on vulnerable populations’ perception of their own vulnerability, and on multimorbidity and immigrant status as aspects of vulnerability